Cities can be dense without being overpopulated. But in the worlds most cramped municipal, the ducts cant cope creating a macabre brand-new job

After decades cleansing the sewers of Dhaka, Bangladesh’s multitude fund, Sujon Lal Routh has determined spate of squalor. But the tragedy of 2008 was the most difficult. After a date of heavy rainfall left the streets spate- as usual- seven works were assigned to clear a blocked manhole in Rampura, in the centre of the city. Commonly, cleans cling to lassoes to stop them getting sucked in by tiding sea when they clear blockages. But the working group were new to the job.” They didn’t know about the impending peril or how to work in that situation ,” supposes Sujon.” So, sewer water swallowed them .”

Bystanders smashed the road open with mallets and ladles. Eventually, they dragged out three workers, dead. Another four were seriously injured; one eventually died in infirmary.” The coincidence instilled suspicion in us, and for months we were even afraid to look into the sewers ,” suggests Sujon.

During Bangladesh’s relentless monsoon season, Dhaka is submerged several times a month. The overburdened drains impediment and the low-lying metropoli replenishes with ocean like a bathtub. Newspapers such as the Dhaka Tribune bemoaned the inundation with photographs of submerge buses and quotes from peeved commuters and disheartened urban experts:” Dhaka underwater again “;” It’s the same old story .”

Bangladeshi
Dhaka spates throughout the monsoon season. Photograph: Munir Uz Zaman/ AFP/ Getty Images

On the sides of the roads, in the blinding torrent, the ragtag infantry of sewer cleaners goes to work. Some protruded bamboo adheres into the manholes. Others are propelled, half-naked, into the liquid squalor and was necessary to scoop out the sediment with their bare hands. ” The world’s worst activity “, global media showed last year after pictures of the workers neck-deep in garbage proceeded viral.

According to UN Habitat, Dhaka is the world’s most cramped metropoli. With more than 44,500 beings sharing each square kilometre of space, and more migrating in from rural areas every day, the capital is literally abounding at the seams- and the sewers. The cleansers, who make about PS225 per month, probability their own health and their lives to prop up infrastructure that is sighing for the purposes of the weight of the population.

Too many beings, too few resources

Overpopulation is typically defined as the country of having more people in one residence that can live there comfortably, or more than the resources provided can cater for. By the above measures, Dhaka is a textbook example.

” “Theres” municipals big in immensity than Dhaka in the world ,” enunciates Prof Nurun Nabi, assignment chairman at government departments of local populations sciences at the University of Dhaka (” They announce me Population Man. Like Superman ,” he responds ).” But if “i m talking” in terms of the characteristics and quality of the town, Dhaka is the fastest growing megacity in the world, in terms of population size .”

Cities can be densely populated without being overpopulated. Singapore, a small island, has a high population density- about 10,200 per sq km- but few people would call it overpopulated. The city has grown upwards to accommodate its residents in high-rises, some with rooftop “sky-gardens” and running tracks.

Overpopulation happens when a city flourishes faster than it can be managed.

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A sewer cleanser in Dhaka. Image: Zakir Chowdhury/ Barcroft Images

‘I’m forced to do this job’

” The government has been trying to manage Dhaka city well, but has not been as successful as expected ,” adds Sujon, the sewer clean, over a peaches-and-cream bowl of cha , Bangladeshi tea, in the meagre swamp he shares with his family in bustling central Dhaka. Outside, coated rickshaws tinkle through narrow, waterlogged streets.

While Bangladesh is majority Muslim, like countless in his profession, Sujon is Hindu. Hindus were singled out for persecution during the country’s war for freedom from Pakistan and remain subject to discrimination. He is also a dalit , are members of the caste known throughoutsouth Asia as “untouchables” and relegated to menial tasks. In Bangladesh, they are called by the disparaging period methor -” the individuals who clean-living shit “.

” I have inherited this from my forefathers and have no other work skills ,” enunciates Sujon, who is towering and in his early 40 s, with a long, thin aspect and neat moustache.” I found a family to maintain, children to offer education and monthly proposals to pay, including lease. I’m forced to do this enterprise, although I know it returns me disrespect and disgrace .”

It is thankless, dangerous work. A acquaintance of Sujon’s was killed when a septic tank he was cleaning explosion. Recently, Sujon’s brother, Sushil, had to hang on to a leaking gas pipeline while trying to clear a 10 -foot-deep manhole.” If we had a washer or spout machine, health risks could be reduced ,” he announces.” We could use the pump to dry up the manhole before going down to clear it up. Likewise, we need to have a ladder to go down. But we just get an succession to get the work done, so we cope beings and try to finish it as rapidly as is practicable .”

Dhaka
Dhaka is one of “the worlds largest” horded municipals in the world. Image: Mohammad Ponir Hossain/ Reuters

Then there are the health effects. Sujon condemns a mysterious skin rash on the hours depleted submerged.

” The sewerage fronts are acidic and deadly due to rotten filth ,” he mentions.” So cleans are 100% sure to have health problems, peculiarly skin problems. Often they don’t realise it at all. They’ll buy and imbibe some neighbourhood liquor, experience dizzy and was sleeping. They’ll be out of this world by then. If they had their impressions they would realise the damage being done slowly .”

Least liveable city

To live in Dhaka is to suffer, to differing grades. The poor are crammed into sprawling shantytowns, where communicable diseases fester and ardors sporadically raze residences. Slum-dwellers even up around 40% of the population. The middle-of-the-road and upper classes deplete often of their hour stuck in wearisome traffic jams. The capital regularly tops” least liveable cities” positions. This year it sat behind Lagos, Nigeria, and the capitals of war-ravaged Libya and Syria.

And that’s an improvement, laughter Nabi during an interview at his office at the University of Dhaka, whose lush humid fields provision the city with rare light-green room. Like many Bangladeshi academics grappling with the emcee of catastrophes allowing down on the two countries, Nabi treats his subject matter with a mix of wry fun and optimism.” In the positions, for a couple of years, we were No 1 ,” he says.

It wasn’t always like this. In the 1960 s, before Bangladesh earned impartiality from Pakistan in 1971, Nabi recalls, it was possible to drive down empty superhighways in Dhaka. Beings bathed in Mughal-era canals in the old-fashioned part of the city, that continue to be home to centuries-old building, although much has been razed in pursuit of proliferation. The canals have been crowded in, cutting off a crucial generator of drainage.

Like much “of the worlds”, Bangladesh has undergone speedy, unplanned urbanisation. The economic opportunities consulted by globalisation, as well as climate-induced adversities in rural and coastal areas, have driven millions to seek better fortune in the capital, putting a strain on sources.” We can see a huge torrent coming towards the city from the rural areas ,” answers Nabi.” Parties are running, running, pouring in. Do we have the building infrastructure to alter them? Where are the facilities for poor people to live ?”

Bangladesh’s reluctance to decentralise and invest in metropolitans beyond Dhaka has compounded the problem, he supposes.” You go to India, only the neighbouring country, you will find Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad, so many municipalities where you can live ,” supposes Nabi.” You can exist. Now, we only have Dhaka still .”

Sewer
Cleaning sewers has been described as the world’s worst responsibility. Image: KM Asad/ Zuma Wire/ Rex/ Shutterstock

‘ Poor-country urbanisation’

For most of modern biography, metropolis changed out of fortune. Even in more recently developed countries, such as China and Korea, the flight towards metropolitans has largely been in line with income rise. But recent decades have brought a global trend for” poor-country urbanisation”, in the words of Harvard University economist Edward Glaeser, with the proliferation of low-income megacities.

According to Glaeser’s research, in 1960 most countries with a average per capita income of less than $1,000 had urbanisation rates of under 10%. By 2011, the urbanisation charge of less developed countries stood at 47%.

In other words, urbanisation has outpaced improvement, ensuing in the creation of teeming but dysfunctional megacities such as Lagos, Karachi, Kinshasa and Dhaka.

Dense urban populations, Glaeser writes, bring benefits such as social and artistic actions as well as scourges like illness and congestion.” Almost all of these problems can be solved by qualified governments with enough fund ,” he writes. In ancient Rome, Julius Caesar successfully campaigned transaction by introducing a daytime ban on the driving of carts in the city. Baghdad and Kaifeng, China, meanwhile, were renowned for their waterworks.” These residences didn’t have wealth, but they did have a skilled populace area ,” writes Glaeser.

In much of the developing world today, both are in short supply.

In Dhaka, management of the city falls to a chaotic mingle of playing organizations.” The lack of coordination between government agencies that provide services is one of the major obstacles ,” suggests Nabi.

Seven different government departments- including two sift mayors- are working to combat waterlogging, an arrangement that has led to a laughable tournament of buck-passing. In July, mayor of south Dhaka Sayeed Khokon stood knee-deep in spray and responded the Water Supply and Sewage Authority( Wasa) was accountable but had not been able” be seen much at work “. Wasa subsequently blamed Khokon. Elsewhere , north Dhaka’s late mayor Annisul Huq, also inspecting waterlogged countries, turned to a reporter in feeling and expected:” Someone tell me what is the mixture ?”

Taqsem Khan, Wasa’s managing director, says that, since natural new sources of drainage are scarce, the administration to shoot liquid out of the city through various thousand kilometres of grapevine laid across the city.

” The reasons for there is water bottleneck in Dhaka city is because it’s a megacity- its population growth are excessive ,” he remarks.” Wasa formerly worked for six million people, but today there are about 15 million people … That is the reason why the natural liquid the organizations and sea drainage systems have been destroyed and home has been built up .”

In 2013, the city signed a deal to dredge some of the canals- in accordance with the instance of Sylhet, another Bangladeshi city suffering from waterlogging- but there has been little signal of progress.

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A Bangladeshi woman hampers a glass of adulterated irrigate in Dhaka. Photograph: NurPhoto/ Getty Images

‘ Many tales will be written by the people of this nation’

But dysfunctional governments have not always been an obstacle to coming thoughts done in Bangladesh. The country has triumphed adoration for its adaptation-focused response to climate change issues.

And some urbanists are rethinking the predominating negative idea of hovels, while urbanisation- which tends to producing refusing birth rates- can be a partial solution to overpopulation.

Glaeser points out that social movements structured in the confines of urban setting can have the power to change and punishment governments.

” Many legends will be written by the people of this society- forget about the political parties ,” adds Nabi.” Someday they will wake up and be forced to comply with their speech .”

In the meantime, however, the unchanged privation of the sewer cleans serves as a reminder that, as metropolitans stretch, they tend to get more unequal.

Sujon says his community is spurned by both Muslims and Hindus.” None comes to hear our predicament , not even neighbourhood reporters ,” he says.

His daughters disguise their parentages even from their friends.” Our babes can go to school, but they must secrete their background and real name to avoid being ostracised and chagrined ,” he says.

” The entire system is against us, against our the successes and our developing. Bangladesh gained independence in 1971, but our community’s conditions remain the same .”

Additional reporting by Rock Rozario

This week, the Overstretched Cities series assesses the effects of the rush to urbanisation, which has participated municipals around the world explode in size. Follow Guardian Cities on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram to join the discussion, and explore our archive now

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